The Midbrain and Hindbrain together form the brainstem. The Midbrain is subdivided into two parts whose subspecialties are critical for sensory-motor integration, neurotransmitter production and body movement. 


The roof of the Midbrain is known as the Tectum and has two bumps which are the sensory-motor integration centers. These two bumps are known as the Superior and Inferior Colliculi. The two Superior Colliculi sit below the thalamus. It processes visual information and coordinates head and neck movement. The Inferior Colliculi collects auditory information and processes direction of sound. It acts as the passage for almost all auditory signals in the human body.


The floor of the Midbrain is known as the Tegmentum, and has several subregions that influence consciousness, attention, sleep, wakefulness, general arousal and motor behavior. Here lies what is called, the Reward System – the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA). The VTA manufactures the neurotransmitter Dopamine and sends it to several higher brain regions. Dopamine is released in anticipation of meeting drives, like eating, drinking, and sex, in response to pain and feelings of pleasure.

Dopamine and Drugs

The VTA also releases Dopamine in response to nearly all drugs of addiction, as well as many disorders affecting motivation and attention, such as Attention Deficit Disorder, Obsessive-compulsive Disorder and behavior addictions (Gambling Addictions, Compulsive Shopping and Sex Addiction). 

Flexible Connections

The Midbrain is similar to the Hindbrain in that its connections are relatively flexible. Damage to the Midbrain may not be fatal but dysfunction can lead to serious problems with sensory processing movement, consciousness and arousal.

This report is not a diagnosis. We hope this information can guide you toward improving your life.

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