Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) believed that rather than being guided by forces outside of ourselves, such as God or fate, we are motivated and controlled by the inner workings of our own minds. Specifically the unconscious. He claimed that our experiences are affected by primal drives contained in the unconscious. HisContinue Reading

During the 1990s, an intense controversy began regarding repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. The controversy continued through the early years of the twenty-first century when startling new claims emerged. Compelling new accusations involving many clergy members. “Guided” Memories Questions were asked whether a hidden discovery of childContinue Reading

Our bodies, like the ocean, have rhythmic tides that fluctuate, and are controlled by internal clocks. The biological clock that synchronizes the 24-hour cycle is called the Circadian Rhythm, from the Latin “circa” meanings “about” and “diem” meaning “day”. The rhythm of the day parallels the rhythm of life: wakingContinue Reading

William James (1842-1910) is often looked upon as one of America’s greatest philosophers. After attending Harvard Medical School followed by studying psychology in Germany, he was appointed Instructor of Physiology at Harvard in 1872. In 1875 he became the first Professor of Psychology and began writing the first textbook. TheContinue Reading

During the 1970s, Psychologist professor and author Elizabeth Loftus began to grow skeptical about the idea of recalling repressed memories or even the ability to exactly recall past events. False Memories Since then, study after study has proven that recollection of facts and events can be distorted by suggestions andContinue Reading

Lucid dreaming usually happens when you’re conscious that you’re dreaming. During a lucid dream, a person feels as if they are fully awake within the dream, and capable of normal thoughts and action. If you ask yourself “am I dreaming?” and you answer “yes,” then you’re having a lucid dreamContinue Reading

Exploring everyday dream life can be richly rewarding and a source of personal enrichment and personal growth. Let’s start with Sigmund Freud’s (1856-1939) pioneering approach. Condensation To unlock dreams, Freud proposed four dream processes or mental filters that disguise the meanings of dreams. The first is Condensation in which severalContinue Reading